Monday, February 24, 2020
Can A Democracy Be Successful In The Arab World - Essay Example The commentators often speak about unpredictable social effects that may occur as the result of the attempts to bring democracy to the definite societies outside. The example of USSR is a sample of such unpredictable implosion, when the reforms of Mikhail Gorbachev, integrated into the archaic society by force, resulted in implosion of the state. And such consequences may include not only radical shifts of the society; the other point is that if any kind of resemblance of democracy appears, nobody could foresee what it would look like in this definite society in future. The commentators cite Iran as an example of the point. It is evident that the necessary reforms should be carried out from the outside, by the government and with the help of legislation. However, nobody can say who is to convince the government of any Muslim country that the necessary changes are to be taken. (Turi) The historical experience shows that the USA demonstrated rather careful attitude to this question in the past. Those who comment on the George Bush's speech on Palestine and its successful movement towards the democracy, as it established democratic government, state that he expressed the fear that other countries of the Arab world are likely to missing this point. (Ahrari) The experts regard Jor... The commentators cite Iran as an example of the point. It is evident that the necessary reforms should be carried out from the outside, by the government and with the help of legislation. However, nobody can say who is to convince the government of any Muslim country that the necessary changes are to be taken. (Turi) The historical experience shows that the USA demonstrated rather careful attitude to this question in the past. Those who comment on the George Bush's speech on Palestine and its successful movement towards the democracy, as it established democratic government, state that he expressed the fear that other countries of the Arab world are likely to missing this point. (Ahrari) The experts regard Jordan as the most probable follower of Palestinian-administered territories. Lebanon is also regarded as the country that is coming closer to the democracy, due to the fact that this country doesn't have a strong leader, like Saddam Hussein. The situation in Syria is better now, than it was in time when it was ruled by Hafiz Assad, the father of the current leader of the nation. But the system created by this leader is strong and stable, so there are no evident signs to change to more democratic character. The case with Iraq is regarded as the most hopeless. It is evident that even with the absence of such leader as Saddam Hussein, this country is not likely to swing to democratic system soon. Among the countries of the North Africa, the experts regard Morocco as the most probable candidate for providing democratic changes. However, the other states of this region are supposed to keep up to authoritarian system of governing the country at the nearest future. The leaders of these countries bring their sons up
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Art Critique (-) - Research Paper Example d in pale green and with a colorful African scarf draped around her neck, holds a white cracked ceramic mask in her hands and rests one arm on the table in front of her. On the table are three tarot cards representing lynchings with the Hanged Man card, Civil Rights with the Justice card and perseverance with the Strength card. The strength of the composition rests in the line of sight of the characters which both freeze the eye within the frame and refuse to engage with the viewer personally. Color also contributes to the paintingÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness as the limited color on the tarot cards continuously direct the eye to the center of the image where the colorful dress and scarf of the woman stand in sharp contrast to the white of the manÃ¢â¬â¢s T-shirt without blending into the muted tans of the background. These pastel-like shades provide a muted feel to the work which helps to highlight the emotions of the people depicted, both of whom feel it necessary to maintain a hold on the white mask that enables them to move in mainstream society. The symbolism apparent in the piece is clear to those with knowledge or curiosity to examine the cards on the table and to understand the condition of people of color within a majority white society. The chasm in the background communicates a vast hurdle to overcom e before the prediction of justice found in the cards on the table comes to pass. However, the strength depicted in these characters and the cracks in the mask suggest this is not a condition that can last long nor is it one that will break the spirits of these people. By examining a series of artworks created by Valerie Winslow, it becomes clear that the artist has a very strong introspective approach to her work. This is revealed in the very detailed depictions of human anatomy she has created as well as in the brooding attitudes of the characters in her more imaginative paintings. Her inclusion of a number of symbols within her paintings further indicates a strong
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Parsley Garden Book Essay The qualities of carelessness and anger can be just as destructive as excessive pride. In Parsley Garden, Al Condraj has made many significant blunders due to his self-pride. In fact, his arrogance has gone straight to his head; Al thinks he is so great and is always right. Unfortunately, due to this absurd thinking, he makes many errors in judgment and doesnt fully think his ideas through before acting on them. Hence, this destructive frame of mind ends up being extremely hazardous to Al. Due to Als smugness, he makes large errors in judgment. When Al wanted the hammer, he didnt consider the consequences of stealing it. Because he is so arrogant, he automatically assumes he is the best thief in the world and that he would never get caught. However, even after getting caught the first time, Al goes back to the store and contemplates whether or not he should steal the hammer again. Al already knows that the workers at the store have a heightened awareness of his actions and that there is a good chance he wont succeed in stealing the hammer a second time. However, he still doesnt care and wants to steal it again. One can now see Als detrimental thinking pattern. Another pitfall in Als judgment is that he doesnt think his ideas through before acting on them. When Al went back to the store to work for the hammer, he did a fantastic job and was even offered one dollar and the job. However, he refused to take the money and job, even though he could have used the extra cash. Al is too arrogant because he doesnt want to work for people he despises. His pride blocks his thoughts so that he doesnt even consider new options. The last damaging cycle caused by Als excessive pride is that Al refuses to do anything when there is a chance for humiliation. For example, he watched Johnny Gale nail boxes for ten minutes, but Johnny was too busy to notice him or talk to him. Al went home because he didnt want somebody working hard to notice that he was being watched and maybe say, Go on, and beat it. Al didnt want to invite a humiliation. As one can see, Als pride isÃ so great that he will leave an opportunity when there is even a slight chance for embarrassment or humiliation. Overall, Als pride is extremely destructive. He is afraid to perform certain activities when he fears that he could be humiliated. Also, he makes large errors in judgment and does not fully think his ideas through. Hence, Als frame of mind is created by his excessive pride and it largely affects and changes Als life for the worse.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Effective Use of Irony and Satire in Unveiling Unveiling, by Vclav Havel, is an almost satirical view of societal behavior in the modern day world. The unusual props located throughout the apartment as well as the characters involved in the play come together to form an ironic tale wrought with realistic themes and an extremist view of modern society. The main characters are Vera, Michael, and Ferdinand Vanek. The play begins with Ferdinand entering the party of Vera and Michael. As the story line progresses, Vera and Michael continue describing their many material possessions and showing off their supposed glamour. All throughout the commentary on their accolades, they also openly criticize Ferdinand in every aspect of his life. They claim to do so only because they like him and because he is their best friend. In the end, Ferdinand begins inching towards the door, and Vera and Michael start to go hysterical at the thought of Ferdinand leaving. Finally, when he sits back down, Vera and Michael resume their "normal" chatter. The characterization in Unveiling is consistent in that each character is generally stagnant. Vera is a flat character. She starts out as a needy woman who is almost grandiloquent when she speaks of her belongings. Her husband Michael is no different. His pretentious behavior is only heightened by the accessory of his wife. In the end, they are still the same albeit not as composed as in the beginning. Ferdinand is really just a minor, speaking character in the play. There is not much depth to his character. He is essentially flat because there is no change in his character or lack thereof. Though Unveiling does contain many themes, the principle one that is prevalent throughout is social pretensions. Vera and Michael pretend that everything is fine in their life though it clearly is not. They hold themselves to a materialistic standard that they feel they must uphold. The slick veneer that they like to hide behind is actually rather brittle and transparent. Their loneliness is apparent. For their "unveiling" party, there is only one guest, Ferdinand. That points to the fact that they do not have many friends, thus the reality which is that they are alone. Along these same lines, societal pressures and social conformity are also major themes. They feel they must uphold such pretenses because that is the social standard.
Monday, January 13, 2020
IntroductionIn this essay I shall discourse the advancement of the European Union Ã¢â¬Ës effort to level gender inequality in employment. In add-on to this, I shall analyze current EU statute law, policy issues, societal and economic challenges faced by both work forces and adult females. Finally, I shall so notice on EU solutions and farther developments that can assist relieve the spread in inequalities in employment. The European Union is besides referred to as the European Economic Community ( EEC ) it is a brotherhood consisting of 27 member provinces ; the EU was created by theTreaty of Maastrichton 1st November 1993 upon the foundations of theEuropean Economic Community ( cited in Wikipedia ) this brotherhood is merged together to better the economical, political and societal coherence amongst people who reside in these states. After the second World War, many adult females were required to carry through the infinites of work forces, who had lost their lives in conflict or were unable to work and therefore there was a Ã¢â¬Ëgap Ã¢â¬Ë in the labour force. Womans were hence recruited and therefore introduced in to employment to beef up and keep the delicate economic system at the clip. However, on contrary to popular belief adult females continued to work even after the economic state of affairs improved, the Suffragettes motion was highly noteworthy in adult females contending for acknowledgment. From the get downing adult females were treated below the belt in respects to hapless wage, nevertheless some were happy to hold some economic independency from work forces and therefore accepted take downing occupations. ( Cited in Euro civilization maestro ) Cockburn ( 1991 ) remarks that the relationship between capitalist economy and labor is shared between foremans and work forces, and therefore neglects the gender relationships of work and place. Much of the theory sing adult females and employment is mostly based on patriarchal theories. Duncombe and Marsden ( 1995 ) argue that adult females are subjected to Ã¢â¬Ëtriple displacements Ã¢â¬Ë this involves paid labor, domestic labor and emotional labor. The emotional labor refers to the attention and heed of the household unit, i.e. the societal function of the adult female being a married woman and a female parent towards the kids and hubby. Due to such challenges the impression of protective statute law was introduced. ( Cited in Sociology: An synergistic attack p189 ) Much pacts and directive were introduced in to some EU states in effort to level gender inequality. The EEC established the rule of Ã¢â¬Ëfair wage Ã¢â¬Ë for work forces and adult females in Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome in 1957. However this was highly complicated to pattern in all members of provinces. This was merely due to the impression of Ã¢â¬Å" equal wage for equal work Ã¢â¬ but it was really rare that both sexes performed the same type of work. It was besides noted that typically male occupations were much better paid so female occupations. Hence, it was evident that the socially bing norm of male Ã¢â¬Ëpower Ã¢â¬Ë was more of import than female qualities. In 1975 the EU introduced directives to farther empower adult females in the field of employment ; the council directive of 75/117/EEC farther supported the pact of Rome on equal wage. Since 1975 there have been many cardinal directives in helping adult females Ã¢â¬Ës function in employment, some of the directives have focused on equal intervention of adult females in respects of publicity, societal security, during gestation, and sex favoritism. ( Cited in Women Lobby ) During the 1990s the EU began to recognize the significance of gender equality and how it impacted the employment sector. In 1997 the EU introduced the European Employment Strategy ( EES ) which recognized equal chances amongst work forces and adult females. The pact of Amsterdam was besides introduced in 1997 this pact was combination of past directives and farther introduced positive action to battle equal wage and favoritism amongst work forces and adult females in employment. ( Cited in Union History ) .However, there were unfavorable judgments of these policies which merely ensured that more adult females were in work and did non concentrate on the quality of the occupations they were in. This position is farther supported in the undermentioned citation: Ã¢â¬Å" In pattern, more attending has been paid to raising the female employment rate than to bring forthing the better occupations for adult females that are indispensable for contracting the gender wage spread Ã¢â¬ ( in Union History ) Sadly the EU has failed to to the full implement gender equality in employment, since it still persists despite the debut of the above directives and pacts. The EU has hence proposed six cardinal aims within the Road map for gender equality ( 2006-2010 ) . These include equal economic independency for work forces and adult females, rapprochement of private and professional life, equal representation in determination devising ; the obliteration of all signifiers of gender based force, the riddance of gender based stereotypes, and eventually the publicity of gender equality in external and development policies. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2006 ) The inequality of gender spreads is the first cardinal aim of carry throughing EU ends in employment and societal coherence. The demand for increased engagement of adult females in the labour market provides a pronounced part to economic development and in bend Ã¢â¬Ëeconomic independency for adult females Ã¢â¬Ë . Harmonizing to the above article, adult females still face more hazard of poorness due to being over represented in the secondary labor market. Harmonizing to Barren and Norris ( 1976 ) adult females are employed in unstable employment that is based on short term contracts, lower wage and entail unskilled work with fewer chances, they are hence more likely to be made excess and therefore suffer from a diminution in the labor market. ( in Jorgensen et al,1997 pg p192 ) .In Addition Bruegal ( 1976 ) remarks from a Marxist women's rightist position, states that such workers are used to maintain costs at minimal by replacing more extremely skilled and demanding workers i.e. work forces. ( Cited Jorgensen et al,1997 pg p129 ) Womans are hence literally restricted in their chances to work farther due to their domestic and emotional duty. In add-on, adult females enterprisers are faced with more troubles so male opposite numbers in constructing up their ain concern, in effort to level the structural inequalities and favoritism the EU has recommended the Entrepreneurship Action Plan to assist back up adult females in developing such undertakings. Womans who besides belong to cultural minority groups suffer from twice every bit much favoritism and challenge Ã¢â¬Ës, in order to contend such multiple favoritism the EU has proposed the Framework for the Integration of Third Country Nationals. This model provides the publicity of migration and integrating policies in order to vouch adult females Ã¢â¬Ës rights and civil engagement. In making so, adult females from all backgrounds, can utilize their full economic potency and have the equal chance to instruction and prosperity. ( Cited in Commission of the Europ ean Communities Report 2006 ) The 2nd cardinal aim of the EU is of the rapprochement of private and professional life for both work forces and adult females. Harmonizing to the ( Commission of the European Communities Report 2007 ) adult females face more challenges than work forces when it comes to managing work and private life, accordingly this affects their calling picks. Statisticss suggest that more adult females than work forces work on portion clip footing and therefore take more calling interruptions than work forces, which clearly has a harmful impact on their callings. Besides, adult females are more subjected than work forces, to take on domestic and emotional labor in add-on to taking parental leave and looking after kids and other dependent household members. The 2007 EU Commission study concludes that due to the deficiency of accessible and low-cost child care, adult females face more inequality in employment. The overall consequence of this is that adult females are placed in unstable occupations with lower wage, which makes them more vulnerable to the larger hazard of poorness. The affair is made worse for individual parent households who have dependants. On the other manus, harmonizing to the Lisbon pact, adult females Ã¢â¬Ës employment in the EU is near to run intoing its end of 60 % by 2010. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2009, pg5 ) However, it is clear that a batch more demands to be done to carry through satisfactory degrees of child care commissariats ( harmonizing to the Barcelona aims ) in order for both parents to unite work and private life. The European Union has besides reflected farther support targeted at bettering equal chances, for case the European Social Fund ( ESF ) which caters for adult females undertakings in respects to vocational preparation in confederation with the NOW community Initiative. ( cited in europrofem ) The EU has besides established enterprises in 2008 to back up better work life balance by doing amendments to directive 92/85/EEC on pregnancy protection. The alterations introduce altering the minimal pregnancy leave from 14 to 18weeks without the loss of gaining. ( cit ed in Commission of the European Communities Report 2009, pg 6 ) Furthermore, this thought has besides been developed in respects to Ã¢â¬Ëfamily related leave Ã¢â¬Ë in respects to household policies and work life rapprochement issues for work forces. For case, statute law on improved leave agreements for male parents is already incorporated in states such as Sweden, Germany, Greece, Lithuania and Spain. The 3rd EU key aim in the roadmap proposes the demand for the equal representation of adult females in determination devising stations. The unequal division of domestic labor and caring duties has clearly been a barrier in the promotion of adult females in employment, there has hence been a demand to amend and make policies to promote adult females Ã¢â¬Ës engagement in the labor market. The Commission of the European Communities Report 2007 noted that adult females predominated occupations were undervalued in comparing to male opposite numbers. Findingss suggested that such occupations had lower rates of wage. For case about 40 % of adult females were employed in the wellness, instruction and public disposal sector in comparing to merely 20 % of work forces. ( pg 3 ) . In defense mechanism of this statement, work forces besides face favoritism in accessing non traditional employment. For case the impression of a male carer or nurse is seen with disgusts or cautiousness due to gende r stereotypes formed by society harmonizing to Acker ( 1989 ) ( cited in Theory and Practice of nursing: an incorporate attack to caring patterns By Lynn Basford, Oliver Slevin ) . This suggested a Ã¢â¬Ësegregation of the labour market Ã¢â¬Ë which was being reinforced by traditional and societal stereotypes which farther influenced people in to gender functions. The EU has since implemented a: Ã¢â¬Å" ..network to advance adult females in economic and political decision-making places which was launched in 2008 to supply a platform for exchange of good patterns between bing webs at EU degree Ã¢â¬ ( Commission of the European Communities Report 2009, pg 6 ) In effort to level the inequality of gender in employment the 4th EU key aim is in respects to the obliteration of gender based force. The EU has established the Daphne programme which supports adult females and kids who have suffered as a consequence of domestic maltreatment. ( cited in europrofem ) The committee has besides encouraged the criminalization of trafficking adult females and kids through development. The EU proposes under new directives to reintegrate such vulnerable groups in to the labor market. It besides proposes the support of member provinces to promote consciousness raising runs, support webs both for the culprits of force and the victims of maltreatment. The 5th EU key aim as described in the roadmap is the impression of gender based stereotypes. At present there is still a major job in respects to inequality in employment. The EUC has identified a gender wage spread has one of the major concern for the European committee harmonizing to The Road Map for Gender Equality 2006-2010. In order to better the present quandary, there have been many legislative and non legislative developments to battle the challenges of favoritism and promote gender equality in employment. Furthermore, despite the antecedently mentioned intercessions above, there still persists a major gender Ã¢â¬Ëpay spread Ã¢â¬Ë which reflects on the overall factors of inequalities and therefore favoritism in employment. On mean adult females were gaining on mean 15 % less than work forces in the European Union in 2005. ( Cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007, pg 2 ) It was found that the gender wage spread still exists due to direct and indirect favoritism factors. It can besides be attributed to societal and economic factors. In respects to leveling gender stereotypes the EU recommend Ã¢â¬Ëgender mainstreaming Ã¢â¬Ë and promote ESF, ICT programmes in instruction and civilization programmes in schools through media tools. In respects to the 6th and concluding key aim illustrated in the roadmap for equality in employment, the EU has proposed the development and amendment of policies widening to external neighbouring states. The EU adheres to recognize values of the Millennium Development Declaration and the Beijing Platform for Action ( BPfA ) . The recent EU scheme for Africa is besides committed to promoting gender equality in external states. The EU commits to advancing the demand for instruction and freedom of chance and wellness and safety. Above all, it welcomes the engagement of all adult females in the domain of economic and political life in determination devising. Four precedence countries have been identified by the Commission these include, that preexistent legal model is to the full applied and utilized whilst placing countries for betterment. The active engagement of all parties is besides to be promoted in all Members of State. In add-on to this, the European Strategy for Growth and Jobs should be applied in full to all employers. Above all the impression of good pattern at all degrees is to be stressed to get the better of traditional stereotypes and prejudiced patterns. The European Pact for Gender Equality 2006 stresses the importance of the committednesss of the Member of provinces to take critical action in this country. Furthermore, several members of provinces have reunited to take outstanding action sing the labor market, instruction, preparation, and the balance of work and private life. Unfortunately there has been small advancement in respects to committednesss from the other member of provinces to take action turn toing this issue harmonizing to the Commissions one-year study on growing and occupations 2006. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007, pg 8 ) In defense mechanism of the above the Commission in 2007 vowed to better the quality of statistics used in respects to the gender wage spread, in add-on they have besides promised to promote all member of provinces to put cardinal marks and bounds for cut downing the wage spread between adult male and adult females on the footing of informations and findings gathered by the one-year studies issued. The Commission is besides in advancement of puting up action programmes on equal chances for its ain staff, it is evident that within public disposal there is a major wage spread which is straight influenced by the presence of occupational segregation and the little presence of adult females in determination devising stations. Despite the overpowering grounds that an increased sum of adult females are going more extremely qualified, there is still a relentless fact they are still outnumbered by work forces in higher places of hierarchy and importance, both in political relations and concer n. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2009, pg 5 ) Harmonizing to the European Alliance on Corporate Social Responsibility ( CSR ) the impression of equality besides poses as a Ã¢â¬Ëcompetitive advantage Ã¢â¬Ë as it utilises the staff Ã¢â¬Ës full productive potency. It encourages inducements to back up good pattern to undertake the inequalities in the wage. Presently the Commission already promotes good pattern by raising consciousness through the PROGRESS programme. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007, pg 9 ) In add-on to the above, the Commission besides proposes to present gender equality policies, to eliminate structural inequalities within the workplace in respects to bettering the profile of businesss which are paid less. For case, the Framework of actions on gender equality 2007, proposes awareness-raising and preparation steps in add-on to the growing of pay comparing tools and schemes to diminish the wage spread. ( cited in Commission of the European Communities Report 2007, pg10 )DecisionTo reason this assignment the impression of Ã¢â¬Ëequality Ã¢â¬Ë is built-in to the values of the European Union. Despite the European Union doing important advancement over clip, in respects to developing directives, pacts and statute law. In add-on to, the EU has reinforced gender mainstreaming via preparation and capacity edifice for those involved in policy devising. Statisticss indicate that gender inequality still persists in employment. The European Union have a long manner in carry throughing cardinal marks in leveling gender inequality. In my personal sentiment the EU key aims need to be more crystalline to the populace in footings of puting realistic marks to beef up gender mainstreaming across all member provinces in order to accomplish alteration.Mentions:Commission of the European Communities Report 2006Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions ( 2006 ) , A Roadmap for equality between adult females and work forces 2006-2010, Brussels, ( Online ) Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do? uri=COM:2006:0092: Five: En: PDF ( Accessed 20/11/2009 )Commission of the European Communities Report 2007Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, , The European Econ omic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions ( 2007 ) . Undertaking the wage spread between adult females and work forces, Brussels, ( Online ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.retepariopportunita.it/Rete_Pari_Opportunita/UserFiles/news/com_pay_gap_.pdf ( Accessed 21/11/2009 )Commission of the European Communities Report 2009Report from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Brussels, ( 2009 ) Equality between adult females and men-2009 Brussels, ( Online ) hypertext transfer protocol: //eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do? uri=COM:2009:0077: Five: En: PDF ( Accessed 21/11/2009 )European Unionhypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union ( Accessed 10/11/2009 )Euro civilization maestrohypertext transfer protocol: //www.euroculturemaster.org/pdf/kunstova.pdf ( Accessed 12/11/2009 )Europrofemhypertext transfer protocol: //www.europrofem.org/contri/2_04_en/e n-gend/08en_gen.htm ( accessed 23/11/2009 ) Jorgensen, N. , Bird, J. , Heyhoe, A. , Russell, B. , Savvas, M. , ( 1997 ) .Sociology: An Synergistic Approach, Collins EducationalUnion Historyhypertext transfer protocol: //www.unionhistory.info/equalpay/roaddisplay.php? irn=785 ( Accessed 15/11/2009 )Womans Lobbyhypertext transfer protocol: //www.womenlobby.org/site/1abstract.asp? DocID=184 & A ; v1ID= & A ; RevID= & A ; namePage= & A ; pageParent= & A ; DocID_sousmenu ( Accessyoutubeed 14/11/2009 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //books.google.co.uk/books? id=WCSunMx7EJ8C & A ; pg=RA1-PA392 & amp ; lpg=RA1-PA392 & amp ; dq=theory-male+nurses+gender+equality & A ; source=bl & A ; ots=Bqru6biKWy & A ; sig=PY0uthcQiq3VFmaaivgF6YEpLPQ & A ; hl=en & A ; ei=wnsdS46lJJeZjAfU_f2PBA & A ; sa=X & A ; oi=book_result & A ; ct=result & A ; resnum=2 & A ; ved=0CAsQ6AEwAQ # v=onepage & A ; q= & A ; f=false
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2310 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Review Level High school Tags: Human Rights Essay Did you like this example? In Todays day in 2014 the world is becoming ever more increasingly culturally diverse which may bring a problem for Human Rights being Universal Globally. It is crucial to define Universal Human Rights theoretically speaking and the conceptions on Human Rights being Universal and inalienable (Donnelly, 2003). Arguments in the international realms are more often connected too western philosophies and many philosophers state that Human Rights are natural and politics play no part as Human Rights are pre-political and are not changeable and that they should not be affected by culture or politics. (Langlois, 2009) Human Rights are fundamental right and should be granted to every human and these values should be accepted and enforced by all states Worldwide. Donnelly says that Human Rights are, The basis in establishing the contemporary consensus on internationally recognised human rights. (Donnelly, 2003.) Human Rights becoming Universal was first thought to be accepted in 1945 after the second world war, this was when the words Human Rights were first used by the United Nations, it was then publically emphasized that Human Rights should be available and granted to all Humans without any irrational differences. During the third United Nations meeting in 1948 this is when the Universal Declaration for Human Rights was first established and approved. On the initial preface of the declaration itself it identified itself to be based on respect for another persons life and that this respect was a Fundamental Free Right Due To Every Individual , and that Every Person Should Have Rights , Dignity and to be Granted Fair Justice. Once the Universal Declaration for Human Rights was approved then began the Legislation of the Human Rights Law and the Practice of the Universalism and its Establishment around the world. Although since cultures are on the increase this may suggest that it could be argued that a Universal approach to Human Rights may not even actually exist in todays day! It would appear that there is a higher chance of a Global Culture occurring as opposed to a Universal Approach to Human Rights and the Acceptance of the Convention on Human Rights. Cultural Relativism itself is the reason that we may be far away from achieving and being United Universally where Human Rights is concerned, since there is a huge amount of culture, religions, ethnicitys and cultural traditions that exist today which may in fact conflict with the European Convention on Human Rights . States that want to apply Cultural Relativism in order to protect and stand up for their own beliefs, practices, morals and traditions with in their own systems with in their own states and adhere to their own laws. Due to this it would indicate that Globally we are more Culturally Relative as opposed to being United Universally on Human Rights and its Legislations. This poses a significant threat too International Law, Human Rights and its Effectiveness. A direct result of this, potentially states are unlikely to comply with the international standards of Human Rights and they will continue to enforce their own practices and traditions which may include; Abuse, Torture, biased judicial system and even Death at the hands of the State. This amounts to a total disregard of Humans and their Fundamental Rights and also Completely Violates the Legislation under the Human Rights Conventions. The perception of Human Rights being Relative as opposed to it being as International a legal imperative would be left to the States own discretion. For example if some states choose to not follow and totally disregard and refuse to comply with Human Rights and Not Unite on Human Rights being Universal, this means States will Continue to Enforce their own practices and traditions and have a disregard for any treaty on Human Rights . States will then be free to enforce its own standards of Human Rights, if they decide if a Human is Even entitled to any rights at all in their opinion in Some States. Standards and laws will be extremely different to the international standards, Especially Western Standards, and Laws and many people will continue to be Mistreated, Abused and Killed Unfairly. United Nations are States which recognise, adhere, apply and promote Human Rights in its countrys and they recognise the Rights of Humans and the need for it to be applied Worldwide for the Protection of Every Single Human Being. One of the Main purposed of the Human Rights Charter is that Human Rights are not a privileged in fact they are a Fundamental Right of every single human being and all the states who are in agreement emphasize this fact and implement it. In an issue of, A global agenda by Charles Norch, he highlights that the universal declaration on human rights, represents a broader consensus on human dignity than does any single culture or tradition.(C, Norch). This statement in fact maybe tru e although not all States who are a part of the United Nations actually act when clear violations and crimes against humanity are openly inflicted in front of their eyes for years on end, some countries in fact turn a blind eye it may seem to Cultural Differences and when trying to determine if to intervene or not they decide depending upon how worth while it may be to them. For example in Libya during the uprising it was not long before the United Nations intervened since Libya is a country which is full of oil this maybe a coincidence but it could also be a fact that states were more interested in the oil and money as apposed the Human Rights violations and horrendous War Crimes being committed by the State to its own people. On the other hand there is still a Civil War ongoing in Syria where chemical weapons were even identified to have been used on civilians by the government , they were identified by investigations done by the united nations workers themselves yet they have not intervened against the state and the atrocitys that are being committed to the men, women and innocent children , this may be a different story if Syria was a county sitting on oil and the nations had something to gain by interceding on behalf of the people if human rights was in fact their main priority? Since there is a lack of state intervention this leaves certain states and countrys no choice other than to depend upon their own internal solutions. Although there are dictatorships which exist this fact is undeniable and this clearly identify the fact that human rights are by no means Universal, Dictators continue Without Intervention of United Nations and the west and continue to use a Pick and Choose Policy of who they want to give rights too and often think of Human life as Cheap, this leaves the Dictators with the Powers to Restrict Rights of whom they choose and consequently leaving the citizens to take matters into their own hands and rebel against their oppressive r ulers, often resulting in massacres on a huge scale, often whilst many states in the west just sit back and watch. The human Rights and its Legalitys on an International Scale can be said to be quite a Contradiction and Ambiguous. International Human Rights Laws are also quite Inadequate at providing a general level of understanding in a certain sense since, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Declares that in Article 2; No Distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdiction or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.(HRA) In theory this should grant Some Legalitys to States that are prepared to enforce Human Rights and intervene against those who are oppressive and who dont grant Fundamental Human Rights to its citizens who are entitled to those rights. There is a problem however with certain contradicti ons in Article 55 of the United Nations Charter for example. In this Article it States the Importance of, Self-Determination; this is attributed to States having the ability to manage their own Political Affairs under their own Jurisdiction. This could give the answer an the justification to how States decide to what extent they are prepared to implement Human Rights and in fact pick and choose which of the human rights they are prepared to give their citizens. If this Legislation is to remain then Ultimately the likelihood of Human Rights being Fully Universal are next to none, it would be near Impossible to Enforce and Maintain without States willing to Adhere to the Legislations, and for this reason until there is Clarification with in the Statutes and there are guidelines which imposes how States behave and their adherence and the insurance of the Implementation of the Human Rights Legislations then until this has been resolved their will continue to be no true Universalism o f Human Rights on a Global Scale. The question of if Human Rights are Universal is down the way in which States Interact and Relate to each other. Within the last Century State Interaction and relationships have changed tremendously especially with regards to economics, culture ,religion , immigration and of course justice! It is then inevitable that the conception of human rights would of course be effected by this. Globalisation and its Huge growth has of course caused a huge amount of problems Internationally and has called for Global Solutions to resolve them. The transition from issues being Internal being dealt with by each State Individually has now become and International issue in the International arena which has effected states immensely and the fact that they have in fact less control over their own Countries, States and its Citizens. States are no longer free to make their own decisions on how to operate their country and how they deal with its citizens. Currency is another huge issue states are not able to change their currency without their being an International Uproar and especially where the sale of oil is concerned, since oil is often the main reason behind War and Conflicts and Western Intervention into States. National Government Organisations (NGOs) has had Substantial effect on the accessibility of Human Rights Internationally. NGOs are a very beneficial way of holding States and the Perpetrators to account without actually Damaging the State itself and which would be more beneficial and effective as opposed to state intervention which could Damage the International Order. This could have a positive effect as Globalisation continues to intensify, in theory Human Rights should therefor increase and become more effective, an also make Human Rights become more Universal. Internal Relations and Human Rights be given allow Tremendously on International Relationships. For example this can be identified by Latin American and its Human Rights Violations. Many Philosophers continue to disagree with one another and remain divided as to what Extent Human Rights are Universal and if they are even Universal at all. Many opinions are stated depending upon justice being granted and also people taking responsibility for their actions. International Relationships currently display the fact that Unfortunately we are quite far away from Human Rights being Universal or that Human Rights will become Universal any time soon. Since accessibility is Restricted by some states and Limited to certain Nations and other states just choose to with-draw Completely. These divisions Internationally and International Relations being decided in this way should raise the Importance to the International Community and they should realise the Importance and address the problems that currently exist today Globally if there is ever to be a Chance of Human Rights becoming Universal. A way in which this could be done is in two ways t he International Community must put forward an obligation upon states to Accept Humanitarian Intervention which would then effectivly emplace a certain amount of pressure to states to adhere to the Legislations and not give States any room to act under any Internal Ulterior Agendas or Motives as Human Rights Legislation would have the Dominant powers, this would then mean Human Rights would have the Main Precedence. This can already be seen to becoming more accepted by states as the Importance of National Governmental Organisations increases and the more widely acceptability with in the International Arena and since these NGOs are highlighting and focusing on trying to establish that Human Rights be Implemented Universally. The Second approach could be rather than Alienating certain states for Non-Adherence Internal Relations Must Accept their Responsibility and the need to Promote Human Rights on a Global Scale and Understand that Relationships and States Interactions play Si gnificant part of Human Rights and the fact that Human Rights must be a part of that Relationship and is needed to be effective and to be United with each other as opposed to countrys working against each other and shunning one another in the International arena. If states continue to ignore the need of Human Rights and continue to undermine the need for human rights being implemented this will continue to have a significant effect on Human Rights ever becoming Universal. It can be said that America is quite the dominant political example and protrudes itself to be the idealistic perfect example of human rights and personal freedom however not too long ago America had huge issues with races and gender discrimination not to forget the slavery. Bibliography NEUMAYER, E. 2005. Do International Human Rights Treaties Improve Respect for Human Rights?.The Journal of Conflict Resolution CARDENAS, S. 2011.Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope. Pennsylva nia: University of Pennsylvania Press DONNELLY, J. 2002.Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.[online]. [Accessed: 21stOctober 2011]. Available from World Wide Web: https://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html; The Charter of the United Nations, 1945.[online]. [Accessed 21stOctober 2011]. Available from World Wide Web:https://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/chapter9.shtml; DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! 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The well-known phrase of love. But In this poem they go deeper and talk about how this is really relative to life itself or the logical reasoning behind this. The main idea in this is to live your life but in some cases live it for the sake of others or to support others and yourself. Like for example you want to become a doctor but the school you need to attend needs a certain amount of money that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t possess, so you either continue and put your parents in debt or make a life changing decision and pursue a different career. Another example could be if you pay the bills in the house and you can either go forward to pursue learning another skill to possess a job or pay the bills to guarantee your son a future and happy life. We are first introduced to Titania with her fighting with Oberon about the Indian boy and she goes on to tell us the real reason why she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to let Oberon have the Indian boy. 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